The «4Cs» of cultural diversity in consumer research: a literature review and research agenda

Keywords: cultural diversity, cultural identity, multiculturalism, consumer behavior, consumer research, brand management


The article focuses on the role of cultural diversity in consumer research. The topic was approached in a non-empirical manner utilizing relevant literature published in the period 2011-2015 in A+ to C ranked journals. Four themes emerged and were integrated into the «4Cs» research taxonomy: Consumer differences, Consumption practices, Complexity in research, and Communication advice for practitioners. Two distinctive streams of research on the topic were identified. The first one concentrates on biculturals by birth or by migration. The second one investigates attitudes towards cultural diversity through identity formation.

Important findings from the first stream are that cultural competence impacts the allocation of decision making roles, biculturals are more willing to consume diverse products, and biculturals react positively toward both individually or interpersonally focused advertising appeals.

The second stream, related to attitudes towards cultural diversity, identifies that cultural identity impacts consumer behavior. Cultural identity can be approached as national vs. global identity, or as local vs. global identity, or from a position of the global citizenship.


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How to Cite
Ivanov, L. (2016). The «4Cs» of cultural diversity in consumer research: a literature review and research agenda. European Journal of Management Issues, (7), 194-200.