Towards an understanding of organizational learning processes in development of competences
Purpose – to analyze the process of organizational learning in development of organizational competences in two educational institutions that offer Higher Technological Education Courses in Brazil.
Design/Method/Approach. As for the methodology, the nature of the research is exploratory, with a qualitative approach, and a multiple case study method.
Findings. The results made it possible to conclude that there was a learning process at the organizational level, as new knowledge and new practices had been institutionalized. Based on the data found in each case, it was possible to certify that some competences can be built and others eliminated, shaping the dynamic character of the process.
Theoretical implications. It was possible to corroborate the model used (Patriotta, 2003) and propose advances to it, towards an understanding of organizational learning processes in the development of organizational competences.
Practical implications. The manager can see competences in dynamics, changing over time and in the context of the organization, according to the events and changes in their objectives, intentions, and strategies.
Originality/Value. We found that organizational learning is the result of the acquisition of a competence that represents this process. Using a metaphor, it was found that the competences of an organization represent the 'DNA' of the organizational learning.
Research limitations/Future research. This paper analyzed two cases only and new case studies are needed to characterize more fully on these results.
Paper type – empirical.
Antonacopoulou, E. P., & Sheaffer, Z. (2010). Learning in crisis: Reconceptualising OL and crisis management. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting.
Antonello, C. S., & Godoy, A. S. (2010). A encruzilhada da aprendizagem organizacional: uma visão multiparadigmática. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 14(2), 310–332. CrossRef.
Argyris, C., & Schon, D.A. (1978). OL: A theory of action perspective. Workingham: Addison-Wesley.
Bardin, L. (1979). Análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70.
Barney, J., & Hesserly, W. (1996). Organizational economics: Understanding the relationship between organizations and economic analysis. In: S. Glegg, C. Hardy and W.R. Nord (eds.). Handbook of organization studies. Longon: Sage Publications, pp 115-147.
Barr, P. S., Stimpert, J. L., & Huff, A. S. (1992). Cognitive change, strategic action, and organizational renewal. Strategic Management Journal, 13(S1), 15–36. CrossRef.
Beck, T. E., & Plowman, D. A. (2009). Experiencing Rare and Unusual Events Richly: The Role of Middle Managers in Animating and Guiding Organizational Interpretation. Organization Science, 20(5), 909–924. CrossRef.
Berends, H., & Lammers, I. (2010). Explaining Discontinuity in Organizational Learning: A Process Analysis. Organization Studies, 31(8), 1045–1068. CrossRef.
Berger, P.L., & Luckmann, T. (1967). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Burrel, G., & Morgan, G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis. London: Heinemann Educational Books.
Chiesa, V., & Barbeschi, M. (1994). Technology strategy in competence-based competition. In: G. Hamel and A. Heene (Eds.). Competence-based competition. England: John Wiley & Sons, pp 293-314.
Child, J., & Heavens, S. (2001). The social constitution of organizations and its implications for OL. In: M. Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child and I. Nonaka. (eds.) Handbook of OL & knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 308-326.
Christianson, M. K., Farkas, M. T., Sutcliffe, K. M., & Weick, K. E. (2009). Learning Through Rare Events: Significant Interruptions at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum. Organization Science, 20(5), 846–860. CrossRef.
Cohen, M. D. (1991). Individual Learning and Organizational Routine: Emerging Connections. Organization Science, 2(1), 135–139. CrossRef.
Cook, S. D. N., & Yanow, D. (1993). Culture and Organizational Learning. Journal of Management Inquiry, 2(4), 373–390. CrossRef.
Corley, K.G., & Gioia, D.A. (2003). Semantic learning as change enabler: relating organizational identity and OL. In: M. Easterby-Smith and M. Lyles (eds.). The Blackwell Handbook of OL and knowledge management. London: Blackwell, pp 621-636.
Creswell, J.W. (2002). Research desing: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Crossan, M. M., Lane, H. W., & White, R. E. (1999). An Organizational Learning Framework: from Intuition to Institution. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 522–537. CrossRef.
Cyert, R.M. & March, J.G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. New Jersey: Englewook Cliffs.
Drejer, A. (2000). OL and competence development. The Learning Organization, 7(4), 206-220.
Duncan, R., & Weiss, A. (1979). OL: Implications for organizational design. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 75-123.
Easterby-Smith, M., & Araujo, L. (2001). Aprendizagem organizacional: Oportunidades e debates atuais. In: M. Easterby-Smith, J. Burgoyne and L. Araujo. (eds.). Aprendizagem organizacional e organizações de aprendizagem: Desenvolvimento na teoria e na prática. São Paulo: Atlas, pp. 15-38.
Easterby-Smith, M., & Lyles, M.A. (2003). Introduction: watersheds of OL and knowledge management”. In: M. Easterby-Smith and M. Lyles (eds.). The Blackwell handbook of OL and knowledge management. London: Blackwell, pp. 1-16.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550. CrossRef.
Elkjaer, B. (2003). Social learning theory: Learning as participation in social processes. In: M. Easterby-Smith and M. Lyles (eds.). The Blackwell Handbook of OL and knowledge management. London: Blackwell, pp. 38-53.
Fear, J.R. (2001). Thinking historically about OL. In: M. Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child and I. Nonaka. (eds.) Handbook of OL & knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 162-191.
Fiol, C. M., & Lyles, M. A. (1985). Organizational Learning. The Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 803-813. doi:10.2307/258048" target="_blank">CrossRef.
Gal, A., & Hellman, Z. (2010). Modeling the micro-foundations of routine formation: When expectations match interpretations. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting.
Giddens, A. (1989). A constituição da sociedade. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.
Guarido Filho, E. R., & Machado-da-Silva, C. L. (2001). A influência de valores ambientais e organizacionais sobre a aprendizagem organizacional na indústria alimentícia paranaense. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 5(2), 33–63. CrossRef.
Hamel, G., & Heene, A. (1994). Inroduction: Competing paradigms in strategic management. In: G. Hamel and A. Heene. Compentence-based competition. England: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1-10.
Hedberg, B. (1981). How organizations learn and unlearn. In: P. Nystrom and W. Starbuck. (eds.). Handbook of organization design. Oxford: Oxford University, pp. 3-27.
Isabella, L. A. (1990). Evolving Interpretations as a Change Unfolds: How Managers Construe Key Organizational Events. Academy of Management Journal, 33(1), 7–41. CrossRef.
Jett, Q. R., & George, J. M. (2003). Work Interrupted: a Closer Look at the Role of Interruptions in Organizational Life. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 494–507. doi:10.5465/amr.2003.10196791.
Lanzara, G. F., & Patriotta, G. (2007). The Institutionalization of Knowledge in an Automotive Factory: Templates, Inscriptions, and the Problem of Durability. Organization Studies, 28(5), 635–660. CrossRef.
Le Boterf, G.L. (2003). Desenvolvendo a competência dos profissionais. Porto Alegre: Artmed.
Levitt, B., & March, J. G. (1988). Organizational Learning. Annual Review of Sociology, 14(1), 319–338. CrossRef.
Machado-da-Silva, C. L., Fonseca, V. S. da, & Crubellate, J. M. (2005). Estrutura, agência e interpretação: elementos para uma abordagem recursiva do processo de institucionalização. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 9(spe1), 9–39. CrossRef.
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Mills, J., Platts, K., Bourne, M., & Richards, H. (2002). Competing through competences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morgan, G. (1983). Beyond method: Strategies for social research. London: Sage Publications.
Nicolini, D., & Meznar, M. B. (1995). The Social Construction of Organizational Learning: Conceptual and Practical Issues in the Field. Human Relations, 48(7), 727–746. CrossRef.
Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oliver, C. (1992). The Antecedents of Deinstitutionalization. Organization Studies, 13(4), 563–588. CrossRef.
Patriotta, G. (2003). Organizational knowledge in the making: How firms create, use, and institutionalize knowledge. United States: Oxford University Press.
Penrose, E.T. (1959). The theory of growth of the firm. London: Basil Blackwell.
Plowman, D. A., Baker, L. T., Beck, T. E., Kulkarni, M., Solansky, S. T., & Travis, D. V. (2007). Radical Change Accidentally: The Emergence and Amplification of Small Change. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 515–543. CrossRef.
Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3): 79-91.
Prange, C. (2001). Aprendizagem organizacional: Desesperadamente em busca de teorias. In: M. Easterby-Smith, J. Burgoyne and L. Araujo. (eds.). Aprendizagem organizacional e organizações de aprendizagem: Desenvolvimento na teoria e na prática. São Paulo: Atlas, pp. 41-63.
Richardson, R.J. (1989). Pesquisa social: Métodos e técnicas. São Paulo: Atlas.
Sanchez, R., Heene, A., & Thomas, H. (1996). Introduction: Towards the theory and practice of competence-based competition. In: R. Sanchez, A. Heene and H. Thomas. Dynamics of competence-based competition: Theory and practice in the new strategic management. England: Elsevier, 1996, pp. 1-35.
Sanchez, R. (2001). Managing knowledge into competence: The five learning cycles of the competent organization. In: R. Sanchez (ed.). Knowledge management and organizational competence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-38.
Scott, R.W. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Scott, R.W., & Meyer, J.W. (1994). Institutional environments and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Selltiz, C., Wrightsman, L., & Cook, S.H. (1987). Métodos de pesquisa nas relações sociais. São Paulo: EPU.
Shrivastava, P. (1983). A Typology of Organizational Learning Systems. Journal of Management Studies, 20(1), 7–28. CrossRef.
Srithika, T. M., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2009). Facilitating organizational unlearning using appreciative inquiry as an intervention. Vikalpa, 34(4), 67-77.
Stake, R. (1994). Case studies. In: N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln. Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage Publications, pp. 236-247.
Teece, D.J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7): 509-533. CrossRef.
Tolbert, P.S., & Zucker, L.G. (1998). A institucionalização da teoria institucional. In: S.R. Clegg, C. Hardy and W.R. Nord (eds.). Handbook de estudos organizacionais. São Paulo: Atlas, v. 1, pp. 196-219.
Triviños, A.N.S. (1987). Introdução à pesquisa em Ciências Sociais: A pesquisa qualitativa em educação. São Paulo: Atlas.
Turner, D., & Crawford, M. (1994). Managing current and future competitive performance: The role of competence. In: G. Hamel and A. Heene. Competence-based competition. England: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 241-264.
Weick, K. E. (1991). The Nontraditional Quality of Organizational Learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 116–124. CrossRef.
Weick, K. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1993). Collective Mind in Organizations: Heedful Interrelating on Flight Decks. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(3), 357-581. CrossRef.
Weick, K.E., & Westley, F. (1996). OL: Affirm an oxymoron. In: S. Glegg, C. Hardy and W.R. Nord (eds.). Handbook of organizational studies. Londres: Sage Publications, pp. 440-458.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180. CrossRef.
Yin, R.K. (2010). Estudo de caso: Planejamento e métodos. Porto Alegre: Bookman.
Yin, R.K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. New York: The Guilford Press.
Zarifian, P. (2001). Objetivo competência: Por uma nova lógica. São Paulo: Atlas.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The authors agree with the following conditions:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors have the right to complete individual additional agreements for the non-exclusive spreading of the journal’s published version of the work (for example, to post work in the electronic repository of the institution or to publish it as part of a monograph), with the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal.
3. Journal’s politics allows and encourages the placement on the Internet (for example, in the repositories of institutions, personal websites, SSRN, ResearchGate, MPRA, SSOAR etc.) manuscript of the work by the authors, before and during the process pf viewing it by this journal, because it can lead to a productive research discussion and positively affect the efficiency and dynamics of citing the published work (see The Effect of Open Access).