Performance appraisal and the quality of working life
Purpose – to identify the relationship between performance appraisal and quality of working life. Explicitly, investigate the effects of firms’ performance appraisal on quality of working life (QWL).
Design/Method/Approach. The study is based on the three businesses data operating in the Republic of Kosovo with ninety-seven (n=97) individual respondents (employees). The study’s questionnaires of the study were prepared, the responses obtained, the econometric model was constructed to empirically test this relationship, and the questionnaires data were processed by the IBM SPSS v.25.0 program as a tool to provide the statistic findings. Results and proposals are brought forward by the matched t-test, independent t-test sample, ANOVA, and regression, which were applied for testing hypotheses.
Findings. Econometric results suggested that applying performance appraisal in the correct way and for appropriate goals, improves job satisfaction, employees’ satisfaction, motivation to employees, and as a result the quality of working life.
Theoretical implications. The theoretical significance of this study is the increases of opinion and the change of judgment for the effects of performance appraisal on quality of working life.
Practical implications. The practical benefit of this study is that it can provide a guideline for managers to apply performance appraisal in the correct manner to increase the quality of working life, and as a result to improve their organization’s performance.
Originality/Value. The importance of quality of working life has been recognized. It is the first paper that examines the relationship between performance appraisal and quality of working life and finds out their interactions using quantitative methods.
Research limitations/Future research. Predictions for further research are to analyze the relation of performance appraisal parameters and QWL, adding other variables that mediate or moderate the relation of these two variables.
Paper type – empirical.
Aggarwal, A., & Thakur, G. S. M. (2013). Techniques of performance appraisal-a review. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 2(3), 617-621.
Armentrout, D. R. (1986). Engineering Productivity management and performance measurement. Journal of Management in Engineering, 2(3), 141–147. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)9742-597x(1986)2:3(141).
Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
Arvey, R. D., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Performance evaluation in work settings. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1), 141–168. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.141.
Banfield, P., & Kay, R. (2008). Introduction to human resource management. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 30-32.
Carter, C. G. (1989). Factors Related to organizational turnover intentions of Louisiana cooperative extension service agents. Quality-of-Life Studies in Marketing & Management Conference, Blacksburg, VA, November.
Champoux, J. E. (1981). A sociological perspective on work involvement. Applied Psychology, 30(1), 65–86. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1981.tb00980.x.
Chang, E., & Hahn, J. (2006). Does pay‐for‐performance enhance perceived distributive justice for collectivistic employees? Personnel Review, 35(4), 397–412. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480610670571.
Cherns, A. (1975). Perspectives on the quality of working life. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 48(3), 155-167.
Dagar, A. (2014). Review of performance appraisal techniques. International Research Journal of Commerce Arts and Science, 5(10), 16–23.
Danna, K. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Management, 25(3), 357–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0149-2063(99)00006-9.
Deb, T. (2006). Strategic appraisal in human resource management: concept, tools & application. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, pp. 58-62.
DeCenzo, D. A., & Robbins, S. P. (1988). Personnel: Human resource management. India: Prentice-Hall.
Dowling, P. J., Welch, D. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1999). International human resource management: Managing people in an international context. South Western College Publishing, ITP, Cincinnati, OH.
Dvořáková, Z. (2012). Řízení lidských zdrojů. Vyd. 1. V Praze: CH Beck, xxvi, 559 s. [Human Resource Management. Ed. 1. In Prague: CH Beck, xxvi, pp. 559] (in Czech).
Efraty, D., & Sirgy, M. J. (1990). The effects of quality of working life (QWL) on employee behavioral responses. Social Indicators Research, 22(1), 31–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00286389.
Efraty, D., & Sirgy, M. J. (1995). Occupational prestige and bureaucratization effects on the spillover between job satisfaction and life satisfaction: a re-conceptualization. New dimensions of marketing/quality-of-life research, London, pp. 253-266.
Efraty, D., Sirgy, M. J., & Claiborne, C. B. (1991). The effects of personal alienation on organizational identification: A quality-of-work-life model. Journal of Business and Psychology, 6(1), 57–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01013685.
Efraty, D., Sirgy, M. J., & Siegel, P. H. (1997). The job satisfaction/life satisfaction relationship for professional accountants: The moderating effect of organizational commitment. Developments in quality-of-life studies, 1, 25.
Elizur, D., & Shye, S. (1990). Quality of Work Life and its Relation to Quality of Life. Applied Psychology, 39(3), 275–291. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1990.tb01054.x.
European Commission, (2016). http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/sme-definition/. (looked at 09.02.2019).
Felce, D., & Perry, J. (1995). Quality of life: Its definition and measurement. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 16(1), 51–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-4222(94)00028-8.
Flamholtz, E. (1972). Toward a theory of human resource value informal organizations. The Accounting Review, 47(4), 666-678.
Giangreco, A., Carugati, A., Sebastiano, A., & Tamimi, H. A. (2012). War outside, ceasefire inside: An analysis of the performance appraisal system of a public hospital in a zone of conflict. Evaluation and Program Planning, 35(1), 161–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2010.11.004.
Greenhaus, J. H., Bedeian, A. G., & Mossholder, K. W. (1987). Work experiences, job performance, and feelings of personal and family well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31(2), 200–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(87)90057-1.
Hroník, F. (2006). Hodnocení pracovníků. Praha: Grada. [Evaluation of workers. Prague: Grada Publishing]. ISBN 978-247-1457-8.
Islami, X. (2015). The Process and Techniques to overcome the Resistance of Change Research based in the Eastern Part of Kosovo. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 3, 1122-1130.
Islami, X., Mulolli, E., & Mustafa, N. (2018). Using Management by Objectives as a performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction. Future Business Journal, 4(1), 94–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbj.2018.01.001.
Jafari, M., Bourouni, A., & Amiri, R. H. (2009). A new framework for selection of the best performance appraisal method. European Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 92–100.
Jiang, J. J., Sobol, M. G., & Klein, G. (2001). A new view of IS personnel performance evaluation. Communications of the ACM, 44(6), 95–102. https://doi.org/10.1145/376134.376179.
Kahn, R. L. (1981). Work and Health Wiley. New York.
Kalra, S. K., & Ghosh, S. (1984). Quality of work life-a study of associated factors. Indian Journal of Social Work, 45(3), 341-349.
Kerce, E. W., & Booth-Kewley, S. (1993). Quality of work life surveys in organizations: Methods and benefits. Sage Focus Editions, 158, 188.
Khurana, A., Khurana, P., & Sharma, H. L. (2010). Human resource management. Delhi: Star Offset.
Lawler, E. E. (1975). Measuring the psychological quality of working life: The why and how of it. The quality of working life, 1, 123-133.
Lawler, E. E. (1982). Strategies for improving the quality of work life. American Psychologist, 37(5), 486–493. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.37.5.486.
Levine, M. F., Taylor, J. C., & Davis, L. E. (1984). Defining quality of working life. Human Relations, 37(1), 81–104. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678403700105.
Lussier, R. N., & Henson, J.R. (2012). Human Resource Management: Functions, Applications, Skill Development. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp. 115-122.
Martel, J.-P., & Dupuis, G. (2006). Quality of work life: Theoretical and methodological problems, and presentation of a new model and measuring instrument. Social Indicators Research, 77(2), 333–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-004-5368-4.
Mayo, E. (1960). The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilizations. Viking Press, New York.
Merrihue, W. V., & Katzell, R. A. (1955). ERI-Yardstick of employee relations. Harvard business review, 33(6), 91-99.
Mirvis, P. H., & Lawler III, E. E. (1984). Accounting for the quality of work life. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 5(3), 197-212.
Mulolli, E., Islami, X., & Skenderi, N. (2015). Human resource management practices and SMEs performance: study based in Kosovo. International Review of Management and Business Research, 4(4), 1171-1179.
Nadler, D., Mirvis, P., & Cammann, C. (1976). The ongoing feedback system. Organizational Dynamics, 4(4), 63–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(76)90045-0.
Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., & Swamy, D. R. (2013). Review of Literature on Quality of Work-life. International Journal for Quality Research, 7(2), 201-214.
Near, J. P., Rice, R. W., & Hunt, R. G. (1980). The Relationship between Work and Nonwork Domains: A Review of Empirical Research. The Academy of Management Review, 5(3), 415-429. https://doi.org/10.2307/257117.
Quinn, R. P., & Staines, G. L. (1979). The 1977 quality of employment survey: Descriptive statistics, with comparison data from the 1969-70 and the 1972-73 surveys.
Rahman, M. S., Ferdausy, S., & Karan, R. (2010). Role of quality of work-life in job satisfaction, job performance and turnover intention: an empirical study. The Chittagong University Journal of Business Administration, 25, 117-137.
Randhawa, G. (2007). Human resource management. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors.
Robbins, S., Bergman, R., Stagg, I., & Coulter, M. (2000). Management (2nd ed.). Australia, Sydney: Prentice-Hall.
Sanchez, J. I., & De La Torre, P. (1996). A second look at the relationship between rating and behavioral accuracy in performance appraisal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.1.3.
Sandrick, K. (2003). Putting the emphasis on employees. Trustee: the journal for hospital governing boards, 56(1), 6-10.
Saraji, G. N., & Dargahi, H. (2006). Study of quality of work-life (QWL). Iranian journal of public health, 35(4), 8-14.
Seashore, S. E. (1975). Defining and measuring the quality of working life. The quality of working life, 1, 105-118.
Seashore, S. E. (1976). Assessing the quality of working life: the US experience. International Institute for Labour Studies, (Vol. 15).
Shaout, A., & Yousif, M. K. (2014). Performance evaluation—methods and techniques survey. International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, 3(05), (2279-0764).
Sirgy, M. J. (2001). Handbook of quality-of-life research: An ethical marketing perspective (Vol. 8). Springer Science & Business Media.
Sirgy, M. J., Efraty, D., Siegel, P., & Lee, D. J. (2001). A new measure of quality of work-life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social indicators research, 55(3), 241-302.
Staines, G. L. (1980). Spillover Versus Compensation: A Review of the Literature on the Relationship Between Work and Nonwork. Human Relations, 33(2), 111–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678003300203.
Stronge, J. H. (1991). The dynamics of effective performance evaluation systems in education: Conceptual, human relations, and technical domains. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 5(1), 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00117288.
Taylor, J. C. (1978). An empirical examination of the dimensions of quality of working life. Omega, 6(2), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483(78)90023-3.
Walton, R. E. (1973). Quality of work life (QWL) measurement. Sloan Management Review, 15(1), 11-21.
Westley, W. A. (1979). Problems and Solutions in the Quality of Working Life. Human Relations, 32(2), 113–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872677903200202.
Yankelovich, D. (1978). The new psychological contracts at work. Psychology Today, May, 46-50.
The authors agree with the following conditions:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication (Download agreement) with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors have the right to complete individual additional agreements for the non-exclusive spreading of the journal’s published version of the work (for example, to post work in the electronic repository of the institution or to publish it as part of a monograph), with the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal.
3. Journal’s politics allows and encourages the placement on the Internet (for example, in the repositories of institutions, personal websites, SSRN, ResearchGate, MPRA, SSOAR, etc.) manuscript of the work by the authors, before and during the process of viewing it by this journal, because it can lead to a productive research discussion and positively affect the efficiency and dynamics of citing the published work (see The Effect of Open Access).