A conceptual framework of transformational leadership as an influential tool in the team performance

Keywords: team performance, leadership style, team cohesion, effectiveness


Purpose – to identify the relationship between the transformational leadership approach and team performance, to analyze the existing literature that expresses the role of transformational leadership on team performance and to create a guideline for the leaders to increase their performance.
Design/Method/Approach. To achieve the purpose o.f the study 86 articles and books were analyzed in terms of transformational leadership, team performance, and the relationship between these two concepts.
Findings. Leadership is one of the essential words in today’s organizational direction. Despite that, transformational leadership has excellent attention on leadership theory. A few numbers of researches are done on analyzing the relationship between transformational leadership and team performance. The findings show that transformational leadership remains the most crucial leadership style in improving team performance.
Originality / Value. The originality of the study is that no one researcher before has analyzed the relationship between transformational leadership and team performance, like this study, which includes analyzing the existing literature over 50 years of research made on this topic by numerous researchers.
Theoretical implications. This study's theoretical significance increases opinion and change of judgment for performance appraisal on the working life quality.
Practical implications. The practical benefit of this study is that it provides a guideline for managers use the leadership style correctly to increase the performance of a team, and as a result their organization.
Research limitattions / Future research. The projections for further research are to analyze the relationship between the transformational leadership approach and team performance, add other dimensions, and measure their common effects on such relationship.

Paper type – theoretical.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Xhavit Islami, "Ss. Cyril and Methodius” University in Skopje; University “Kadri Zeka”

PhD. Cand., Faculty of Economics, Program “Organizational Sciences and Management (Management)”, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje;
Teaching Assistant, Department Management, Faculty of Economics, University "Kadri Zeka", Gjilan

Enis Mulolli, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje

PhD. Cand., Faculty of Economics, Program “Organizational Sciences and Management (Management)”,

Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje


Adizes, I. (2004 a). The Ideal Executive: why you cannot be one and what to do about it: a new paradigm for management. The Adizes Institute Publishing.

Adizes, I. (2004 b). Management/mismanagement styles: How to identify a style and what to do about it. The Adizes Institute Publishing.

Asrar-ul-Haq, M., and Kuchinke, K. P. (2016). Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks. Future Business Journal, 2(1), 54-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbj.2016.05.002.

Atwater, D. C., and Bass, B. M. (1994). Transformational leadership in teams. In B. M. Bass and B. J. Avolio (Eds.), Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership (pp. 48-83). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., and Jung, D. I. (1999). Re‐examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 72(4), 441-462. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317999166789.

Balthazard, P., Waldman, D., Howell, J., and Atwater, A. (2002). Modeling performance in teams: the effects of media type, shared leadership, interaction style, and cohesion. In August, 2002 Academy of Management Meeting, Denver, CO.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the Transactional-Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2), 130-139. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.52.2.130.

Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 8(1), 9-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398410.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1997). Full range leadership development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (pp. 43- 44). Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of applied psychology, 88(2), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207.

Bass, B.M. (1988). Evolving perspectives of charismatic leadership. In J.A. Conger and R.N. Kanungo (eds.), Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness (pp. 56-84). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bass, B.M. (1990), Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 270- 283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.11.006.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership New York. NY: Harper and Row Publishers.

Butar, I. D. B., Sendjaya, S., & Pekerti, A. A. (2019). Transformational Leadership and Follower Citizenship Behavior: The Roles of Paternalism and Institutional Collectivism. In Leading for High Performance in Asia, 19-40. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6074-9_2.

Conger, J.A., and Kanungo, R.N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 637-647. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1987.4306715.

Creswell, J. W., Hanson, W. E., Clark Plano, V. L., and Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The counseling psychologist, 35(2), 236-264. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006287390

Dess, G.G., Miller, A. (1993). Strategic Management, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Dinh, J. E., Lord, R. G., Gardner, W. L., Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., and Hu, J. (2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 36-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.005.

Dionne, S. D., Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., and Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance. Journal of organizational change management, 17(2), 177-193.

Doucet, O., Fredette, M., Simard, G., and Tremblay, M. (2015). Leader profiles and their effectiveness on employees’ outcomes. Human Performance, 28(3), 244-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2015.1021039.

Eisenbeiss, S. A., and Boerner, S. (2013). A double‐edged sword: Transformational leadership and individual creativity. British Journal of Management, 24(1), 54-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00786.x.

Eisenbeiss, S. A., van Knippenberg, D., and Boerner, S. (2008). Transformational leadership and team innovation: integrating team climate principles. Journal of applied psychology, 93(6), 1438-1446. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012716.

Evans, C. R., and Dion, K. L. (1991). Group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Small group research, 22(2), 175-186. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496491222002.

Farahnak, L. R., Ehrhart, M. G., Torres, E. M., & Aarons, G. A. (2019). The influence of transformational leadership and leader attitudes on subordinate attitudes and implementation success. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 1548051818824529. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051818824529.

Farrell, E. (2009). Take the Lead in Setting Standards of Behaviour in Your Team. Professional Manager, 19(1), 14.

García‐Morales, V. J., Lloréns‐Montes, F. J., and Verdú‐Jover, A. J. (2008). The effects of transformational leadership on organizational performance through knowledge and innovation. British journal of management, 19(4), 299-319. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2007.00547.x.

Glickman, A. S., Zimmer, S., Montero, R. C., Guerette, P. J., and Campbell, W. J. (1987). The evolution of teamwork skills: An empirical assessment with implications for training. Old dominion univ norfolk va center for applied psychological studies. Technical Report NTSC 87-016, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA.

Grant, A. M. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2), 458-476. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0588.

Guzzo, R. A., and Dickson,M.W. (1996). Teams in organizations: recent research on performance and effectiveness. Annual Review of Psychology, 47(1), 307–338. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.307

Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., and Wu, D. (2018). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 44(2), 501-529. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316665461.

House, R.J. (1977). A theory of charismatic leadership. In J.G. Hunt and L.L. Larson (eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University.

Howell, J. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Locus of Control, and Support for Innovation: Key Predictors of Consolidated-Business-Unit Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 891-902. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.6.89.

Islami, X., & Islami, V. (2019). Performance appraisal and the quality of working life. European Journal of Management Issues, 27(1-2), 10–20. https://doi.org/10.15421/191902.

Islami, X., Mulolli, E., & Mustafa, N. (2018). Using Management by Objectives as a performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction. Future Business Journal, 4(1), 94–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbj.2018.01.001.

Judge, T. A. & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755-768. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755.

Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of applied psychology, 85(5), 751-765. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.751.

Jung, D. I., & Sosik, J. J. (2002). Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment, cohesiveness, and collective- efficacy on perceived group performance. Small group research, 33(3), 313-336. https://doi.org/10.1177/10496402033003002.

Kahai, S. S., Sosik, J. J., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Effects of leadership styles, anonymity and rewards in an electrical meeting system environment. Working paper, Centre for Leadership Studies, Binghamon University.

Klimoski, R., and Mohammed, S. (1994). Team mental model: Construct or metaphor? Journal of management, 20(2), 403-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-2063(94)90021-3.

Kotter John, P. (1990). A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs From Management/John P. Kotter.

Krishna, Y. R. (2011). Effects of Transformational Leadership on Team Performance. Journal Int. J. Buss. Mgt. Eco. Res, 2(1), 152-157.

Lapersonne, A. (2018). The hybrid competitive strategy framework: a managerial theory for combining differentiation and low-cost strategic approaches based on a case study of a European textile manufacturer (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester).

Liang, T. L., Chan, L. C., Lin, C. W., & Huang, Y. L. (2011). Relationship between leadership behaviors and task performance: The mediation role of job satisfaction and the moderation role of social distance. African Journal of Business Management, 5(14), 5920-5928.

Lim, B. C., & Ployhart, R. E. (2004). Transformational leadership: relations to the five-factor model and team performance in typical and maximum contexts. Journal of applied psychology, 89(4), 610-621. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.610.

Ling, Y. A. N., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M. H., & Veiga, J. F. (2008). Transformational leadership's role in promoting corporate entrepreneurship: Examining the CEO-TMT interface. Academy of Management journal, 51(3), 557-576. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2008.32626023.

Liu, J., Siu, O. L., and Shi, K. (2010). Transformational leadership and employee well‐being: The mediating role of trust in the leader and self‐efficacy. Applied Psychology, 59(3), 454-479. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00407.x.

Lorinkova, N. M., & Perry, S. J. (2019). The importance of group‐ focused transformational leadership and felt obligation for helping and group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(3), 231-247. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2322.

Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. The leadership quarterly, 7(3), 385-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1048- 9843(96)90027-2.

McKenna, P. J., & Maister, D. H. (2002). Building team trust. Consulting to Management, 13(4), 51.

Mehra, A., Smith, B. R., Dixon, A. L., & Robertson, B. (2006). Distributed leadership in teams: The network of leadership perceptions and team performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 232-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.003.

Miles, J. A. (2012). Management and organization theory: A Jossey- Bass reader (Vol. 9). John Wiley and Sons.

Montoya-Weiss, M. M., Massey, A. P., and Song, M. (2001). Getting it together: Temporal coordination and conflict management in global virtual teams. Academy of management Journal, 44(6), 1251-1262. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069399.

Mullen, B., and Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological bulletin, 115(2), 210-217. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.2.210.

Mullins, L. J. (2010). Management and organizational behavior. Pearson education. Ninth edition. New York, NY.

Mulolli, E., Islami, X., & Skenderi, N. (2015). Human resource management practices and SMEs performance: study based in Kosovo. International Review of Management and Business Research, 4(4). 1171-1179.

Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Moorman, R.H., and Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7.

Prochazka, J. & Vaculik, M. (2015). Transformational Leadership: "Normative" Psychological Theory of Effective Leadership. Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, 59(2), 137-149.

Prochazka, J., Vaculik, M., and Smutny, P., (2017). Transformational Leadership, Work Satisfaction and Group Performance: Mediation Analysis.

Robbins P. S. and Judge A. T. (2016). Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education. 17th edition, ISBN 978-0-13-410398-3.United States.

Ross, J. E., and Kami, M. J. (1973). Corporate management in crisis: why the mighty fall. Prentice-Hall.

Rowold, J. (2005). Multifactor leadership questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the German translation by Jens Rowold. Redwood City: Mind Garden.

Salas, E., Dickinson, T.L., Converse, S.A. and Tannenbaum, S.I. (1992). Toward an understanding of team performance and training. Teams: Their training and performance. Ablex Publishing Corporation, Westport, CT. 3-29.

Shaw, M. E. (1971). Group dynamics: The psychology of small group behavior. McGraw-Hill.

Sosik, J. J., Kahai, S. S., and Avolio, B. J. (1998). Transformational leadership and dimensions of creativity: Motivating idea generation in computer-mediated groups. Creativity Research Journal, 11(2), 111-121.https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326934crj1102_3.

Stout, R. J., Salas, E., and Fowlkes, J. E. (1997). Enhancing teamwork in complex environments through team training. Group Dynamics: Theory, research, and practice, 1(2), 169-182. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.1.2.169.

Swezey, R. W., and Salas, E. E. (1992). Teams: Their training and performance. Ablex Publishing.

Tannenbaum, S. I., Beard, R. L., and Salas, E. (1992). Team building and its influence on team effectiveness: An examination of conceptual and empirical developments. Advances in psychology, 82, 117-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-4115(08)62601-1.

Tichy, N.M., and Devanna, M.A. (1986). The transformational leader. New York: Wiley.

Tracy, B. (2010). How the best leaders lead. Recorded Books.

Tracy, B. (2014). Leadership. From success library of Brian Tracy. Published by “DAMO”. ISBN 978-9951-642-27-9.

Trice, H.M., and Beyer, J.M. (1986). Charisma and its routinization in two social movement organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 113-164.

Tyssen, A. K., Wald, A., and Heidenreich, S. (2014). Leadership in the context of temporary organizations: A study on the effects of transactional and transformational leadership on followers’ commitment in projects. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 21(4), 376-393. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813502086.

Van Knippenberg, D. (2015) Value-Based Leadership. Presentation at the Congress of European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology 2015.

Van Knippenberg, D., and Sitkin, S. B. (2013). A critical assessment of charismatic – transformational leadership research: Back to the drawing board? The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 1-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2013.759433.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. new york: John willey and sons. Inc. Vroom Work and Motivation.

Waldman, D. A. (1994). Transformational leadership in multifunctional teams. Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership, 84-103.

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., and Zhu, W. (2008). How transformational leadership weaves its influence on individual job performance: The role of identification and efficacy beliefs. Personnel Psychology, 61(4), 793-825. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00131.x.

Wang, G., Oh, I. S., Courtright, S. H., and Colbert, A. E. (2011). Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group and organization management, 36(2), 223-270. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601111401017.

West, M. A. (2012). Effective teamwork: Practical lessons from organizational research. John Wiley and Sons.

Yammarino, F. J. (1996). Group leadership: A levels of analysis perspective. Handbook of work group psychology, 189-224.

Yukl, G. A. (1989). Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research. Journal of Management, 15(2), 251-289. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638901500207.

Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in organizations. Pearson Education India.

Zaccaro, S. J., and Klimoski, R. J. (Eds.). (2002). The nature of organizational leadership: Understanding the performance imperatives confronting today's leaders (Vol. 12). John Wiley and Sons.

How to Cite
Islami, X., & Mulolli, E. (2020). A conceptual framework of transformational leadership as an influential tool in the team performance. European Journal of Management Issues, 28(1-2), 13-24. https://doi.org/10.15421/192002