The Many Faces of Distance – A Typology of Distance in Management

Keywords: international management, internationalization, cultural distance, psychic distance, institutional distance


Purpose: Based on the various streams of distance literature in management, a framework is provided to make discourses on distance clear.

Design / Method / Approach: After a review of the most relevant distance concepts, a typology with five categories is introduced, which are then applied to the most relevant distance concepts in management.

Findings: A clear typology helps to clearly define and differentiate the various streams of distance literature.

Theoretical Implications: With the conceptual categories ‘topic’, ‘dimensionality’, and ‘level of analysis’, and the empirical categories ‘variables’ and ‘distance calculation’, distance concepts become more consistent.

Practical Implications: With a terminology for the different aspects of distance, practitioners can focus more clearly on specific remedies to bridge distance.

Originality / Value: The paper offers a new typology of different elements of distance.

Research Limitations / Future Research: The introduced typology will aid in the discussion of distance in management.


Paper type: Conceptual


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How to Cite
Botts, M. M. (2021). The Many Faces of Distance – A Typology of Distance in Management. European Journal of Management Issues, 29(4), 181-191.